1. multiple plant species, including at least one woody species. definition fails to take into account the integrated concepts associated with agroforestry that make this system of land management possibly the most self-sustaining and ecologically sound of any agricultural system. Ecosystem services: Nature’s gift 3. As in all of agriculture, costs, inputs, and adverse environmental effects must be … Producers are now increasingly asking how to begin the process of establishing agroforestry systems. Required: New agricultural solutions 10 MAJOR BENEFITS OF AGROFORESTRY 1. Agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems and technologies where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc.) Riparian and upland buffers: strips of permanent vegetation, consisting of trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs planted and managed together, Windbreaks: trees or shrubs planted and managed as barriers to reduce wind speed as part of a crop or livestock operation, Alley cropping (known as silvoarable agroforestry in Europe): trees planted in multiple rows combined with crops, Silvopasture (also known as agrosilvopastoral agroforestry or, Forest farming: cultivation of high-value specialty crops under the protection of a. „„Agroforestry is a collective name for land use systems and technologies where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboo etc.) agroforestry meaning: 1. agriculture (= farming) that involves growing and caring for trees: 2. agriculture (= farming…. Therefore, agroforestry systems combine trees, crops, or livestock to increase diversity, productivity, profitability, and … Silvopasturecombines trees with livestock and their forages on one piece of land. Agroforestry practices are intentional combinations of trees with crops and/or livestock which involve intensive management of the interactions between the components as an integrated agroecosystem. Associate Director of the Center for Agroforesty and Professor of Forestry at the University of Missouri. Agroforestry is the interaction of agriculture and trees, including the agricultural use of trees. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Although American and Canadian temperate-zone agroforestry nomenclature differs from that used in the tropics and Europe, five temperate-zone agroforestry practices are generally recognized worldwide. Very simply put, agroforestry is defined as ‘agriculture with trees’. … Negative interactions, by contrast, can result in resource competition, more pests, excessive shading, and allelopathy (the release of biochemicals by one plant to suppress the growth of another). Agroforestry systems are land management practices in which trees and shrubs are produced on the same land area as agricultural crops or livestock. Although some agroforestry practices, such as windbreaks and shelterbelts, are popular in Quebec, agroforestry as a whole is not well known in the Quebec agri-food sector. Ideally, components are structurally and functionally combined and actively managed to optimize the positive biophysical interactions between them. In 1977 the Canadian International Development Research Centre released a report called Trees, Food and People (part of the Project for Identification of Tropical Forestry Research Priorities) describing the critical role of trees in sustaining agricultural production in the tropics. Alley croppingmeans planting crops between rows of trees to provide income while the trees mature. Windbreaks shelter crops, animals, buildings, and soil from wind, snow, dust, and odors. Agroforestry systems are intensively managed to maintain their productive and protective functions through cultivation, fertilization, irrigation, pruning, and thinning. a method and system of land management involving the simultaneous cultivation of farm crops and trees; agriculture incorporating the growing of trees: Agroforestry ensures a continuous food supply, some continuous economic return, and the avoidance of soil degradation. These areas can also support wildlife and provide another source of income. Agroforestry is a system of land management that integrates tree and shrub plantings with crops or livestock in order to generate economic, environmental and social benefits. In addition to many of the temperate-zone practices, tropical agroforestry systems often include a variety of other agroforestry methods. Thus, a second definition of agroforestry would be the integration of trees, plants, and animals Forest farming is also called multi-story cropping. This includes most of the United States except for the majority of Alaska and the southern most parts of Texas and Florida. An agroforestry system of land use in which trees and shrubs are grown with herbaceous food crops, pastures, and animals. agriculture or forestry practices -generally includes the following components . Agroforestry seeks to optimize positive interactions, such as mutualism and commensalism, and to minimize predation on crops and livestock and competition within and between species. WHAT IT IS 1. Bene et al. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Omissions? This diversification of the farming system initiates an agroecological succession, like that in natural ecosystems, and so starts a chain of events that enhance the functionality and sustainability of the farming system. Official websites use .gov Advance agroforestry as a means to support sustainable agricultural systems, including increased resilience to extreme weather events (e.g., drought and floods) brought on by climate variability. Silvopastoral systems 4.3. Positive interactions may reduce stress to plants and animals, enhance yields, retain soil, and capture water. Classification of agroforestry systems 21 3.1. Riparian forest buffers are natural or re-stablished areas along rivers and streams made up of trees, shrubs, and grasses. When properly applied, agroforestry can improve livelihoods through enhanced health and nutrition, increased economic growth, and strengthened environmental resilience and ecosystem sustainability. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Trees with fields in between: plentiful, secure productivity Agroforestryis a sysem where farm crops are mixed with trees to supply fodder, fuel, leaf litter, medicinal herbs, fruit, timber, etc. In 2002 ICRAF was renamed the World Agroforestry Centre to reflect its global mandate. Forest farmingoperations grow food, herbal, botanical, or decorative crops under a forest canopy that is managed to provide ideal shade levels as well as other products. The benefits of agroforestry derive from the interactions between trees and shrubs and crops and livestock. This project addresses that question by providing training in the agroforestry … Definition -variable, depends upon specific . Agroforestry definition is - land management involving the growing of trees in association with food crops or pastures. Agroforestry is a practical and low-cost means of implementing many forms of integrated land management (which seeks to reduce human impacts on land), and it contributes to a green economy by promoting long-term, sustainable, and renewable forest management, especially for small-scale producers. Forest farming is also called multi-story cropping. plants) happen. Agroforestry is a mixture of components that consist of woody plants (timber, clump, palm, bamboo, and other cambium-borne plant species) with agricultural plants (seasonal species) and/or cattle, which set in temporal a arrangement and spatial arrangement as well (Sardjono et al., 2003). Foster public-private partnerships that increase understanding, acceptance, and application. "Agroforestry is the intentional integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal farming systems to create environmental, economic, and social benefits." The system can be designed to produce fruits, vegetables, grains, flowers, herbs, bioenergy feedstocks, and more. system. Agroforestry can occur at a variety of spatial scales (e.g., field or woodlot, farm, watershed) in different ecosystems and cultures. Agroforestry systems also yield proven strategies for long-term carbon sequestration, soil enrichment, biodiversity conservation, and air- and water-quality improvements, benefiting both the landowners and society. Terrace cultivation, living fences, multipurpose trees (e.g., the Albida acacia [Faidherbia albida]), fodder trees, and multi-strata systems (featuring trees of different heights, as in shade-grown coffee) are also used in tropical systems to combine trees with other crops and livestock. A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. In 2004 the World Bank estimated that agroforestry practices were being used by 1.2 billion people. are deliberately used on the same land-management units as agricultural crops and/or animals, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. 3. Structural classification of systems 24 3.2. Irrigated rice terraces, Bali, Indonesia. The history of agroforestry 3 References 11 2. Agroforestry is the intentional integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal farming systems to create environmental, economic, and social benefits. Black walnut and various eucalyptus trees, for example, are known to allelopathically inhibit the growth of certain annual crops planted near them. As such, it plays a critical role in advancing agroforestry to enhance the nation's economy and its agricultural landscapes, watersheds, and communities. agriculture (= farming) that involves growing and caring for trees: These Javanese communities have practised agroforestry in the forests since the tenth century. Indeed, integrating trees with crops and animals is a long-standing tradition throughout the world. For example, the moist shaded microclimate under certain crop trees is beneficial for shade-tolerant crops such as turmeric or pineapple. A more elaborate definition of agroforestry is ‘the intentional integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal farming systems to create environmental, economic, and social benefits’ They are also called shelterbelts, hedgerows, or living snow fences. Secure .gov websites use HTTPS It has been practiced in the United States and around the world for centuries. Agroforestry can optimise cocoa production, farmer income, carbon storage and environmental benefits, and supply chain resilience. A lock ( LockA locked padlock ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Hydromorphic agroforestry system: It referes to agroforestry in the wet lands or in waterlogged areas, e.g., acquaforestry, paddy cultivation with fish culture. The trees provide timber, fruit, or nuts as well as shade and shelter for livestock and their forages, reducing stress on the animals from the hot summer sun, cold winter winds, or a downpour. Smith viewed tree-based “permanent agriculture” as a solution to the destructive erosion that often followed the cultivation of sloping lands. Agroforestry is an environmentally-friendly land use system where numerous interactions among trees with crops, livestock and other living organisms (incl. In some systems, for example, the trees are regularly coppiced (severely cut back), and the cuttings are applied as mulch to the soil. USDA factsheets about agroforestry systems and practices, FAQs, and USDA information contacts. Agrosilvipastoral systems WHY WE DO IT 1. Agroforestry seeks positive interactions between its components, aiming to achieve a more ecologically diverse and socially productive output from the land than is possible through conventional agriculture. Forest farming operations grow food, herbal, botanical, or decorative crops under a forest canopy that is managed to provide ideal shade levels as well as other products. are deliberately grown on the same land management unit as agricultural crops and/or animals either in spatial mixture or in iii. Xeromorphic agroforestry system: It is the dryland agroforestry in arid and semi-arid areas, e.g., Agroforestry practices in Africa. Agroforestry Systems: NREM 301 . Classification based on function of systems 26 However, this simple definition fails to take into account the integrated concepts associated with agroforestry that make this system of land management possibly the most self-sustaining and ecologically sound of any agricultural system. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Different basic agroforestry systems exist, where the age of the trees and the distribution and arrangement of shrubs and trees differ considerably between the different systems. A framework for classification of agroforestry systems The foregoing analysis reveals the following: The usually used criteria for classifying AF systems and practices are: (1) Structure of the system (nature and arrangement of components); (2) Function of the system (role … Three main types of Agroforestry 4.1. Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. Updates? Definition and concepts of agroforestry 13 Community forestry, farm forestry, and social forestry 16 References 17 Section II. For a management practice to be called agroforestry, it typically must satisfy the four "i"s: There are five widely recognized categories of agroforestry in the United States: Alley cropping means planting crops between rows of trees to provide income while the trees mature. Home gardens and taungya, in which food crops are grown between tree seedlings as they mature (often used in teak or mahogany production), are useful to supplement the nutritional needs of landowners growing tree crops. Increased agricultural productivit… Conventionally, farmers have only grown a single crop on one field. (1977) defined agroforestry as a sustainable management system for land that increases overall production, combines agriculture crops, forest plants and tree crop and/or animals simultaneously or sequentially and applies management practices that are compatible with the cultural patterns of a local population. Our company’s definition: Cacao agroforestry is a managed, intentional system of cultivation of cacao with other trees and crops over time and space. practices -basic definition is a set of . These areas can also support wildlife and provide another source of income. https://www.britannica.com/science/agroforestry, How Stuff Works - Home and Garden - How Agroforestry Works. Agroforestry is a land-use management system in which trees and shrubs are grown either on arable land along with crops or on pastureland. Define agroforestry. Agrisilvicultural systems 4.2. The damage of current land-use practices 2. Such management not only encourages new tree growth but also augments the light levels reaching shaded crops, reduces weeds, and helps to maintain soil moisture. In turn, such improvements can contribute to increased social sustainability in which human needs are satisfied in a way that fosters environmental health. Learn more. These buffers can help filter farm runoff while the roots stabilize the banks of streams, rivers, lakes and ponds to prevent erosion. Although the modern concept of agroforestry emerged in the early 20th century, the use of woody perennials in agricultural systems is ancient, with written descriptions of the practice dating back to Roman times. Agroforestry was formally outlined in the early 20th century by American economic geographer J. Russell Smith in his book Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture (1929). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. multi-species . Yielding the benefits of integration 2. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The agroforestry strategic framework (PDF, 562 KB) is a roadmap for agroforestry services USDA provides to landowners through its conservation programs. That led to the establishment of the International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ultimately headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1977, and in 1982 ICRAF launched the journal Agroforestry Systems to provide a global research outlet for the newly emerging field. Agroforestry is successful when more production is obtained by the trees and crops or livestock than could be obtained on the same piece of land with only a single cropping system. However, his contributions were largely overlooked during the green revolution of the 1960s and the subsequent and more-inclusive farming systems research/extension (FSR/E) development approach of the early 1970s that sought sustainable agricultural alternatives. The value of agroforestry systems in addressing these priorities has been established by several decades of research worldwide. Agroforestry Systems is an international scientific journal that publishes results of novel, high impact original research, critical reviews and short communications on any aspect of agroforestry. Farm diversification is a growing strategy for economic competitiveness, especially throughout the industrialized temperate zone, and agroforestry offers great promise for the sustainable production of specialty nut and fruit crops, high-value medicinals, dairy and beef cattle, sheep, goats, and biomass for biofuel. Today, agroforestry is often associated with tropical climates, however it is a land-use system that is also successfully applied in temperate climates. Silvopasture combines trees with livestock and their forages on one piece of land. These four key characteristics - intentional, intensive, interactive and integrated - are the essence of agroforestry and are what distinguish it from other farming or forestry practices. Those endeavours failed to address many basic needs of small-scale resource-limited farmers in the tropics, such as the essential timber and non-timber products derived from trees, including food, fuel, fodder, building materials, medicine, and income, as well as the ecosystem sustainability that trees maintain. agroforestry synonyms, agroforestry pronunciation, agroforestry translation, English dictionary definition of agroforestry. Agroforestry, cultivation and use of trees and shrubs with crops and livestock in agricultural systems. AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES 3. Agroforestry is defined as ‘agriculture with trees’. "Agroforestry is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resource management system that, through the integration of trees in farm-and rangeland, diversifies and … Agroforestry is a practical and low-cost means of implementing many forms of integrated land management (which seeks to reduce human impacts on land), and it contributes to a green economy by promoting long-term, sustainable, and renewable forest management, especially for small-scale producers. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Due to the presence of trees on farmed lands, agroforestry systems host biodiversity of … However, it is so much more. and particular . Learning from 3.5 billion years of experience 4. An official website of the United States government. The system can be designed to produce fruits, vegetables, grains, flowers, herbs, bioenergy feedstocks, and more. ii. 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